Chronology

Archeological research, as generally practiced, shares with the rest of anthropology and the other social sciences a concern for the recurrent, patterned aspects of human behavior rather than with the isolation of the unique. It is historical in the sense that it deals with human behavior viewed through time and supplements written sources with the documentation provided by artifactual evidence from the past. During the century or so of its existence as a recognizable scholarly discipline, archeology has come more and more to apply scientific procedures to the collection and analysis of its data, even when its subject matter could be considered humanistic as well as scientific. Archeology can also be properly regarded as a set of specialized techniques for obtaining cultural data from the past, data that may be used by anthropologists, historians, art critics, economists, or any others interested in man and his activities. This view has the advantage of eliminating the argument whether archeology is anthropology or history and allows for recognition of the varied, sometimes incompatible, purposes for which archeological data and conclusions are used. There is no reason to regard the archeology of Beazley, who analyzes Greek black-figure vases, as identical with the archeology of MacNeish, who has excavated plant remains of the earliest Mexican farmers. No other reliable means is available to extend backward our knowledge of culture, since traditional histories, orally transmitted, are not only shallow in their time depth but subject to many distortions with the passage of time. It has provided an essential check on theories of cultural evolution and is substituting fact for fancy in such matters as the origins of plant and animal domestication and the beginnings of writing, urbanization, and other crucial steps toward civilization. Although scientific archeology—in contrast to antiquarian studies and the collection of curios—is less than a century old, it has already provided a comprehensive and fairly detailed view of human activities in all parts of the world from the very beginnings of mankind Clark At the same time that archeology is fundamental to a scientific understanding of man, it is also a subject of tremendous popular interest, albeit too often of a superficial and sensational kind.

Archeology

Related fields[ edit ] Chronology is the science of locating historical events in time. It relies upon chronometry , which is also known as timekeeping, and historiography , which examines the writing of history and the use of historical methods. Radiocarbon dating estimates the age of formerly living things by measuring the proportion of carbon isotope in their carbon content.

Dendrochronology estimates the age of trees by correlation of the various growth rings in their wood to known year-by-year reference sequences in the region to reflect year-to-year climatic variation. Dendrochronology is used in turn as a calibration reference for radiocarbon dating curves.

The first known hominid settlements in the Nice area date back about , years; [9] the Terra Amata archeological site shows one of the earliest uses of fire, construction of houses, and flint findings dated to around , years ago.

The first known hominid settlements in the Nice area date back about , years; [9] the Terra Amata archeological site shows one of the earliest uses of fire, construction of houses, and flint findings dated to around , years ago. The city soon became one of the busiest trading ports on the Ligurian coast; but it had an important rival in the Roman town of Cemenelum [ citation needed ], which continued to exist as a separate city until the time of the Lombard invasions.

The ruins of Cemenelum are in Cimiez , now a district of Nice. In the city repulsed the Saracens ; but in and again in the Saracens pillaged and burned it, and for most of the 10th century remained masters of the surrounding country. During the Middle Ages , Nice participated in the wars and history of Italy. As an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa , and both the King of France and the Holy Roman Emperor endeavoured to subjugate it; but in spite of this it maintained its municipal liberties.

During the 13th and 14th centuries the city fell more than once into the hands of the Counts of Provence , but it regained its independence even though related to Genoa. Duchy of Savoy red and other independent Italian states in This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message The medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town.

The landward side was protected by the River Paillon , which was later covered over and is now the tram route towards the Acropolis.

Archeology

The thermoluminescence technique is the only physical means of determining the absolute age of pottery presently available. It is an absolute dating method, and does not depend on comparison with similar objects as does obsidian hydration dating, for example. Most mineral materials, including the constituents of pottery, have the property of thermoluminescence TL , where part of the energy from radioactive decay in and around the mineral is stored in the form of trapped electrons and later released as light upon strong heating as the electrons are detrapped and combine with lattice ions.

November Learn how and when to remove this template message The medieval city walls surrounded the Old Town.

Chronology

During the struggle between Francis I and Charles V great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invading Provence ; pestilence and famine raged in the city for several years.

Thermoluminescence

In the field of Egyptology , William Flinders Petrie pioneered sequence dating to penetrate pre-dynastic Neolithic times, using groups of contemporary artefacts deposited together at a single time in graves and working backwards methodically from the earliest historical phases of Egypt.

Thermoluminescence

Exposure to airport security x-rays does not present any problem.

The phenomenon of thermoluminescence was first described by the English chemist Robert Boyle in

This will destroy the dose information carried in the pottery and rendered it unsuitable for TL dating.

localhost:81